- 渡辺照宏著作集〈第1巻〉インドの思想 (1982年) 筑摩書房 1982 256p ￥2,500
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- 仏教学論集 筑摩書房 1982/07 583p ￥9,800
A POEM MONUMENT IN MEMORY OF KOYA TAKITA
A KIRISHITAN SCHOLAR
生月島隠れキリシタン研究の開拓者 故田北耕也氏の句碑建立 平戸市「島の館」
「被（かぶ）らめやキリシタン島の春の土」‐。昭和初期から生月島（平戸市）で隠れキリシタン研究に取り組んだ田北耕也氏（１８９６−１９９４）の句碑が、遺族や信者らによって同市生月町の博物館「島の館」敷地内に建てられた。それまで秘匿されていた隠れキリシタン信仰の実態解明に生涯をささげた学究の、真摯（しんし）な心情が刻まれている。 島の館学芸員の中園成生さん（４６）によると、名古屋市に住む長女の黒崎京さん（８３）から５年前に建立の申し出があり、生月側が協力した。句碑は高さ約１・４メートルの黒御影… [記事全文]
2009/12/05 01:02 【西日本新聞】
- “How my body fares in the world above I have no knowledge” (“I mio corpo stea/ nel mondo su, nlla scienza porto”) (Dante’s Inferno’s description of the voice twittered from Alberigo whose sould is in Hell)(Inferno Canto XXXII 410-11). Cf. humans caged and locked in a cave> the sibyl caged in the cave at Cumma near Naples.
(This is merely a draft!)
Pali is a dead language, surviving to us today as the literary language in which the Agama scriptures are described. It is one of the vernacular dialects of Sanskirt. Closely related to Sanscrit, Pali was the ancient Indic vernacular language, originally a natural, spoken dialect. Today, Pali survives in the Agama scriptures of Hinayana Buddhism.
The Pali Canon was composed in North India and solely remembered by heart. Whe the monks recited the words of Buddha the entire words (Tipika) were committed to writing during the Fourth Buddhist Council held in Sri Lanka in 29 BCE on palm leaves. (Which took place in a cave called the Aloca lena near Matale, Sri Lanka.)
Gautama strictly condemned the committing of his teaching to writing in Sanskrit. Sanskrit is a lingua france, a language monopolized by the uppermost governing caste. Such a medium was something Gautama was strictly up against. Instead, he chose the ordinary vernacular languages and dialects. He wanted to make strict use of everyday discourse.
Modern Buddhist scholarship in Europe had long focused on the study of Agama scriptures. Although Agamas had been long neglected in Mahayana Buddhism, Hinayana Buddhism considered the Agama sutras as the basis of all scriptures, regarding the Agamas as the important early record of what Gautama actually said. Agama, a Sanskrit word means “basket” while in Pali the word nikaya (literally “collection”)
During his graduate years, T. S. Eliot read part of the Pali scriptures (note 1). In the fall term of 1912, Eliot read Anguttara-Nikaya. In the spring term of 1913, he read Digha-Nikaya and Majjhima-Nikaya (Murata, Eritto 26).
Agama scriptures translated into Pali:
- Digha-nikaya (“Collection of Long Discourses” 長部経典): 34 discourses in three series, many dealing with the training of the disciple.
- Majjhima-nikaya (“Collection of Medium-Length Discourse” 中部経典): 152 discourses, many of which tell of the Buddha’s austerities, his Enlightenment, and early teaching
- Samyutta-nikaya (“Collection of Kindred Sayings”相応部経典): these are divided according to subjecct: 56 相応, 7762 sutra
- Anguttara-nikaya (“Collection of Gradual Sayings”増支部経典): 11 集, 9557 sutras
- Khuddaka-nikaya『小部経典』: 15分
What portion of the huge amount of discourse did Eliot really read? In addition to the Pali scriptures, there are commentaries on all of the scriptures, commentaries made by the elders of the Buddhist Order. “The works of Buddhaghosha Thera (Elder) rank very high in exegetical literature” (Baruah 101). Which Buddhaghosha’s commentaries did Eliot read?
1) Buddha’s doctrinal teachings are preserved in the Pali scriptures called Tipitaka. Tipitaka means the Three Baskets of the Canon: 1) the Basket of Discipline, 2) the Basket of Discourses and 3) the Basket of Ultimate. The second “Basket of Discourses” or “Sutra/ Sayings Basket” (Sutta Pitaka) contain discourses, mostly ascribed to the Buddha, but some to discilple. The Basket is divided into five Nikayas or collections as follows:
Agama scriptures translated into Chinese:
『中阿含教』: 中編の経典60 volumes, 224 sutras; Samghadeva
『増一阿含経』』(ぞういつ-): 法数ごとに集められた短篇の経典 51 volumes, 472 sutras; Samghadeva
『長阿含教』(じょう-):長編の経典 22 volumes, 30 sutras; Biddhayasas
『雑阿含経』(ぞう-):短編の経典集 50 volumes, 1362 sutras; Gunabhadra
In Japan, agama scriptures have long been neglected as inferior scriptures. After the introduction of modern European scholaship in the Meiji period, however, the situation has drastically changed. In Europe T. W. Rhys-Davids, V. Fausboell, H. Oldenberg and so forth founded the Pali Text Society in 1882. Masaharu Anesaki and others led the way to evaluate the Pali scriptures. The Teravada Buddhist tradition has thus been transplated in modern Japan. (*Nikaya: 尼)
UNITARIANISM AND JAPAN: HISTORICAL TIMETABLE
(TO BE COMPLETED)
1825: The American Unitarian Association (AUA) founded.
1867: The Free Religious Association (FRA) founded by Francis Ellingwood Abbott (1836-1903). He was a radically liberal Unitarian, asserting that Christianity is no longer tenable.
1868: The National Conference of Unitarian Churches held by Henry W. Bellows (1814-1882). The Broad Church group later organized by Bellows with the support from James Freeman Clarke (1810-1888). Bellows soon gains support from the Western Unitarian Conference (WUC) and others.
1878: Toward the end of 1870s AUA moves its position very close to that of radical Unitarianism. As a result, Ralph Waldo Emerson comes to be considered to be a representative Unitarian (Tsuchiya 38).
1884: Jabeth Thomas Sunderland (1842-1936) appointed Secretary, WUC.
1885: Fenollosa converts to Buddhism. (For this reason, he was going to embrace the ideal of Buddhistic Unitarianism (Tsuchiya 44), on which stance he backed up the Unitarian mission to Japan.) In this year (?), Sen Katayama moves to Yale Divinity School, where he meets Tokio Yokoi (Tsujii 108).
1886: Sen Katayama living at Alameda, Calif.
belongs to the First Union Church of Alameda through the kind offices of Saichiro Kanda, who later belongs to the (Unitarian) Unity Hall, Shiba, Tokyo (Isao Tsujino 98).
1887: In August, AUA decides to send a mission to Japan. In early September, Arthur May Knapp meets Ichitaro Fukuzawa in Boston and strikes up and maintain friendship with the eldest son of Yukichi Fukuzawa. On 22 December, Arthur May Knapp arrives at Yokohama, Japan with his family. He came to Japan as a “Missionary, A. U. A.” (Narita, Eriotto 55-56); however, his main purpose was during his stay of one year and a half to investigate the possibility of establishing a mission in Japan (Tsuchiya, “Yuniterianshugi” 42). Strong support given to Knapp from Yukichi Fukuzawa, Fumio Yano, Yoshiakira Tokugawa, Fenollosa, Kentaro Kaneko, Kiyoshige Yoshida, Arinori Mori, Jyomin Sano, Rokuichiro Masujima and so forth (Tsuchiya, Yuniterian 75-77). [Whereas Unitarianism was dangeriously liberal in the US, it was not the case in Japan.]
1888: Knapp’s address described as “Tokyo, Japan (Missionary of A. U. A.)” in the Unitarian Year-Book for 1888, which description continues through the 1890 edition of the Year-Book.
1889: In July Fenollosa sends his letter to AUA, detailing the reason why Knapp has received enthusiastic welcome from high-ranking government officials. (The Prime Minister Hirobumi Ito’s entourage including Mori, Yoshida and Kaneko were resolute supporters of the Unitarian mission to Japan and of Knapp (Tsuchiya 74-76).) When Knapp re-visits Japan in this year, he accompanies Clay MacCauley (1843-1925) with him. (As a young man MacCauley used to be a member of FRC but later turned to be sufficiently conservative to stay in the organization of AUA.
1890: In his lecture in Boston, Mass., Kentaro Kaneko requests the Americans to dispatch the Unitarian mission to Japan. The Imperial Rescript on Education issued on 30 October. MacCauley’s address described as “Tokyo, Japan (Missionary of A. U. A.)” in the Unitarian Year-Book for 1890, which description continues through the 1899 edition of the Year-Book. The Japanese Unitarian Association was founded in this year. “By the following year, Clay MacCauley had succeded Knapp, and there was one organized church and three other meetings. There were also four other outposts in different parts of teh country. A school for training ministers, the School of Liberal Theology, was also founded” (Harris 274).
1894: Unity Hall, the headquarters for the mission and the school was dedicated. The church had between 150 and 200 members at this time. FRC and AUA are reconciled with each other. [Sino-Japanese war erupts on 1 August (-17 April 1895).]
1898: Knapp’s address described as “Tokio, Japan” (Unitarian Year-Book), which description continues through the 1908 edition of the Year-Book. In the 1909 edition, the address described as “42B Bluff, Japan”; in the 1910 edition through the 1912 edition, as “44 Clark Road, Brookline, Mass”; in the 1913 edition through the 1915 edition, as “72 Perkins Street, West Newton, Mass”; in the 1916 edition through the 1919 edition, as “25 Beacon Street, Boston, Mass”; in the 1920 edition, no description appears about Knapp. Shusui Kotoku writes an article “Causes of Social Corruption and the Way to Remedy it” (Yorozu-choho, 18-19 November); Tomoyoshi Murai and Sen Katayama, evaluting the article, persuade him to join the Socialism Research Society of the Unity Hall (Tsujino 117).
1900: Fukuzawa requests Knapp to recommend three American Unitarian scholars as faculty members of his college consisting of departments of law, finance and literature. Samuel A. Eliot (son of Charles W. Eliot, president of Harvard) is elected President, the American Unitarian Association (AUA). “In 1900 the board agreed to reorganize the administration so that the president of the board (not the secretary) would become the chief executive of the association” (Harris 163). Around 1900, Japan’s Unitarian Association abolished presidency and shifted to adopt the parliamentary system in which the committee consisted of Saji, Kanda, Abe, Kishimoto and Murai. [The Public Order Police Law promulgated.]
1900: “MacCauley stayed in Japan until 1900… the mission suffered from financial cutbacks, and was effectively ended after he left” (Harris 275).
1901: Knapp’s address described as “67 Bluff, Yokohama, Japan” (Unitarian Year-Book), which description continues through the 1890 edition of the Year-Book.
1902: On 30 January, the Anglo-Japanese Alliance signed in London.
1903: In late March Thomas Lamb Eliot arrives at Yokohama, Japan (returning to Portland, Oregon in late May). In this year Jitsunen Kanda feared that the Doshisha-group might threaten the Unitarian Association’s governance. Kanda shifts the parliamentary system back to presidential government. He first makes Saji President and himself Vice-President and then maneuvers Saji into persuading Abe to leave the Association, thus successfully expelling any Doshisha-influence. While Thomas stays in Japan, Kanda goes so far as to ask him in secrecy so that Abe dissociate himself from his involvement in socialism. Kanda said to Thomas, “Say something to Abe since he pokes his head into socialism too much” (Iguchi 152). In June, a law scholar Hiroto Mito of Tokyo Imperial University led the way to advocacy for war against Russia while Abe confronted war-advocacy by asserting pacifism (Iguchi 135). Mito should have been fully aware that this new year (1903) opened with jingoing prevalent.
1904: The Russo-Japanese war breaks out on 8 February (-5 September 1905).
1909: “Although MacCauley returned to Japan from 1909 to 1920, the mission suffered from financial cutbacks, and was effectively ended after he left” (Harris 275).
1910: [The High Treason Incident.]
*Memo: There was ambituity or even enmity between Jitsunen Kaneko and Saichiro Kanda especially after Kanda’s return from his participation in the AUA meeting.
- Harris, Mark W. Historical Dictionary of Unitarian Universalism. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow, 2004.
- Memorial of the Dedication of Yuiitzukwan, Tokyo, Japan, March 25th, 1894.
- Morris, Carol Ruth. Frederick May Eliot, President of the American Unitarian Association (1937-1958). Dissertation, Boston University, 1970.
- Narita, Tatsushi. “T. S. Eriotto to Nyu-ingurando-bunka-shiso” (“T. S. Eliot and New England Cultural Thought”), Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences (Nagoya City University, Nagoya, Japan), 3 (1997), 55-72.
- ——. T. S. Eliot, the World Fair of St. Louis and “Autonomy.” Nagoya: Kougaku Shuppan, 2013.
- Tsuchiya, Masanobu. Yuniterian to Fukuzawa Yukichi (“Unitarians and Yukichi Fukuzawa“). Keio University Press, 2004.
- Tsujino, Isao. Meiji Shakaishugi-shiron. Kyoto: Horitsubunkasha, 1978.
CLAY MACCAULEY: A CHRONOLOGY
(To be Completed)
1843: Clay MacCauley born on 8 May in Chambersburg, Pennsylvania. Brought up in the ancestral tradition of Calvinism.
1859: entered the sophomore class of Dickinson College at age sixteen.
1860: After convinced at Lincoln’s speech of patriotism, MacCauley left the College with an intention to give priority to enlisting against his parents’ will.
1861: MacCauley was transferred to Princeton.
1862: MaCauley enlisted with the 126th Pennsylvania Regiment, Company D. Sent to Libby Prison in Richmond, Va, he became part of the prisoner exhange program.
1864: MaCauley, finishing up his term at Princeton, returned to the army to work with the United States Christian Commission (USCC). He helped take care of the wounded and distributed Bible. Entered the Presbyterian Theological Seminary of the Northwest. He obtained his license to become a minister. Studied the theology of Rev. Dr. Bushnell.
1868: He received an invitation from the First Congregational Unitarian Society in Detroit.
1860’s: McCauley served with several First Unitaran Congregatonal Churches in Rochester, New York and Waltham, Mass.
1873: Leaves the US for Germany where he studied philosophy and theology at Heidelberg and Leipzig. Fascinated by Karl Friedrich Christian Krause, he did research in the origins and history of Christianity.
1877: He returned to the US and became a pastor of the First Unitarian Church of Washington, DC.
1878: His reconstruction work complete at the Church in this year.
1880: Decided to leave the Church. Starts working for the Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE). He was assigned to research the Indians of Minnesta, the Cherokee of North Carolina and the Seminoles of Florida.
1882: During this year, he became ill and traveled to Europe and then the American Northwest.
1883: He settled in Minnesota and became pastor of St. Paul Unitarian Church.
1884: He formally left the Bureau.
1885: Newspaper reports “The Gambling Evil./ A Discourse by the Rev. Clay MacCauley in Uity Church” (St. Paul Daily Globe, 914 Sept. 1885, page 2); “The Rev. Clay MacCauley Tells Why He Does Not Believe in Endless Punishment” (St. Paul Daily Globe, 9 Nov. 1885, page 2). A series of “Civil War Meeting” held by MacCauley; singing done by him “Marching Through Georgia” and “Johnnie Comes Marching Home”; “Rev. Clay MacCauley also gave some reminiscences of his ary life. He was at the battle of Antietam and passed over the same ground that Capt. Simonton passed over, though neither o hese gentlemen knew anything of the other until recently” (St. Paul Daily Globe, 11 Nov. 1885, page 4).
1887: A history of art class elected MacCauley president (St. Paul Daily Globe, 9 Nov. 1887, page 4).). He applied for foreign-missionary service with the American Unitarian Association.
1889: The St. Paul newspaper reports of MacCauley’s move to Japan: “Rev. Clay MacCauley Will Go to Japan for the Unitarian Society” (St. Paul Daily Globe, 16 Aug. 1885, page 3). A newspaperMacCauley became one of the first Unitarian representatives of Tokyo. [He established the Meirokusha, an intellectual society organized to promote Western learning and establish models of ethical behavior.]
1890: From 1890 to 1895 he edited the Japanese Unitarian magazine Shukyo宗教 (“Religion“). During that time, he was also a correspondent of the Boston Transcript, writing articles concerning American affairs with Japan and the war with Japan and Canada. In this year (1890), the First Unitarian Church of Tokyo founded (Coscette).
1891: He became president and professor of the philosophic and historic theology at Senshin Gakuin, College for Advanced Learning in Tokyo.
1895: “The Former Pastor of All Souls’ and His Unique School [in Japan]” (Evening Star (Washington, DC), 20 July, 1895, page 5).
1897: MacCauley at a party in California (The San Francisco Call, 11 April 1897, page 20). A news reported that MacCauley will come back from Japan to deliver a lecture “Christianity in Japan” at the All Soul’s Church, Washington, DC (Evening Star, 20 April 1895, page 10).
1899: MacCauley’s view of the Philippine issued reported “BLUNDERS OF IMPERIALISM/ Close Range View of the Pilippine Problem by a Missionary” (Omaha Daily Bee, 1 March 1899, page 11). “Then, should such war be undertaken, it should be known by all that the consequent destruction of the present industries and commerce of teh Philippnes, so far uninjured, would be an inclculable disaster to the United States, in the permanent embitterment of the people of the islands against us, in the loss of the good will of our friends among the world’s nations, and in the final effacement of our own national ideal of human freedom and of each man’s rights in the pursuit of happiness” (“MONEY SIDE FO THE BARGAIN/ Cost of Philippine Occupation and Prospective Returns,” Omaha Daily Bee, 10 arch 1899, page 6). “Misrepresentation of Dewey Refuted [Clay MacCauley]” (The Sun (New York, NY), 14 July 1899, page 6).
1909: “MacCauley’s achievements earned him the Order of the Rising Sun in 1909, the Order of the Sacred Treasure in 1918 and he received the Red Cross Service badge in 1920” (Doscette).
1910-1916: He was president of the Asiatic Society of Japan. “This group of diplomats, businessmen and missionaries regularly met to discuss and learn more about Japan, publishing their information in Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan” (Coscette).
1913: The Faith ofthe Incarnation: History and Ideal.
1915-1916: “His other memberships included vice president of the International Press Association, a Tokyo journalist’s club, from 1915-1916” (Coscette).
1916-1919: He was president of the American Peace Society of Japan, a Christian peace reform group, from 1916-1919.
- Coscette, Dianna. “Biography of Clay McCauley” (Archive: Dickinson College Blog). Web: 10 June 2013.
BOOKS BY CLAY MACCAULEY:
◾A Day in the Very Noble City, Manila: A Lecture (1899). Pranava Reprint available.
◾Christianity in History, a Reply
◾The Seminole Indians of Florida
◾A straightforward tale
◾An Introductory Course in Japanese (Classic Reprint)(Pranava Reprint)
◾Outline of Japanese Grammar: A reprint of certain sections from ” An introductory course in Japanese ”
◾Krause’s League for Human Right and Thereby World Peace
◾Looking before and after some war-time essays [New]
◾Mammy an appeal to the heart of the South
◾Memorial of the Dedication of Yuiitzukwan, Tokyo, Japan, March 25th, 1894 (1894)
◾Religious Problem in Japan: How Solve It? American Unitarian Association Boston, The [Used]
◾The faith of the incarnation:-historic and ideal;: Glimpses of beginnings, development and metamorphoses of Christianity [Used] ◾The Heusken Memorial, an Old Story Retold (Pranava Reprint) ◾The Hohenzollern dynasty (Vol-1): motive and movement [New]
◾The Hohenzollern dynasty ; motive and movement. (Pranava Reprint) [New/Used]
◾The Seminole Indians of Florida [New]
◾The Seminole Indians of Florida (Illustrated Edition) (Dodo Press)
◾The Seminole Indians of Florida (Large Type Edition) [New]
◾The Seminole Indians of Florida – The Original Classic Edition
◾The Seminole Indians of Florida. : Bureau of American Ethnology 5th Annual Report, 1883-1884, pp. 469-531. [Used]
[to be removed pretty soon:]
Mon 25 Feb 2008
Historical Methodologies- Biography
Clay McCauley’s life is notable for his many accomplishments. Growing up in a conservative Presbyterian family ignited his interest in theology and philosophy. After serving with the Union, he focused on preparing himself for a life serving God. He studied theology and philosophy at numerous schools, and continual questioned the “truths” of Christianity. From a Presbyterian to a Unitarian ministry, McCauley found his way into a Unitarian missionary service program overseas. Throughout his life, he traveled abroad and had a mix of odd jobs, like working for the Bureau of American Ethnology and editor of the Minneapolis Commercial Bulletin. McCauley wrote numerous works ranging from introductory Japanese to his experiences in the Civil War to his influences by the philosophy of Karl Christian Friedrich Krause. His list of achievements proves he has had an eventful and successful life.
With the rise of Scotch-Irish immigration to America in 1710, Pennsylvania became a leading immigrant state of those searching for religious freedom. Scotch peoples immigrated to America due to economic distress, and political and religious disabilities under Queen Anne’s government. An important founder for Presbyterian churches of Pennsylvania, Scotch-Irish minister Francis Makemie, paved the way for Presbyterian power. Chambersburg, PA became home to a large population of Scotch-Irish and German immigrants. Presbyterian beliefs dominated the town and educational systems. In 1730, the McCauley’s settled in Chambersburg and embraced their ancestral creed of Calvinism. On May 8, 1843 Clay McCauley was born into a religiously centered household. It must be noted that his surname changed during his life to ‘MacCauley’, and most information found on him is recorded as MacCauley.
Growing up, McCauley firmly followed the Calvinist religion. Daily worshiping and Sunday school at Old School Presbyterian Church prepared him for a conservative life. The Bible and “Westminster Shorter Catechism” became the fundamental works he studied. At home, he had a repetitive teaching of Calvinist beliefs by his mother and grandmother. Strict religious learning at an early age taught him to be faithful and accept the religious truths of Calvinism. McCauley strongly believed in salvation from God, and the need to save non-believers. He became very interested in theology and at a young age decided to prepare himself for the ministry. Other than religion, he enjoyed his childhood by making crafts, writing and reading. Books of traveling and pioneering began McCauley’s fascination with Japan. Theology and travel will become an inspiration for his future achievements. However, for the time being, McCauley focused on enjoying the start of his college career at Dickinson College.
In the autumn of 1859, Clay McCauley entered the sophomore class of Dickinson College at age 16. There, he studied natural sciences, religion, Greek, mathematics and philosophy. He was a member of the Phi Kappa Sigma fraternity and the Union Philosophical Society. His work and time spent at Dickinson was cut short in 1860 after hearing Lincoln’s speech of patriotism. Wanting to serve his country, McCauley left to enlist against his parents’ will, but could not because he was underage. In his book Memories and Memorials, McCauley reflects on his time at Dickinson saying, “it enlarged his mental horizon and he came to accept his life’s work of becoming a minister.” In 1861, he transferred to Princeton to further his religious and philosophical studies. With the Civil War waging on, McCauley postponed his studies for the ministry to help fight with the brave.
In the summer of ’62 he enlisted with the 126th Pennsylvania Regiment, Company D. After fighting with the Union at the battles of Rappahannock and Fredericksburg, he soon rose to 2nd Lieutenant on February 24 1863. On May 3rd, his company arrived at Chancellorsville ready to join the attack against the Confederate army. After more than an hour of fighting, Brig. Gen. Alfred H. Colquitt’s Georgia brigade turned the struggle against the Union, raging unending fire. Fear crept into the minds of the soldiers with the sounds of death and whizzing bullets. McCauley described the panic feeling of advancing on through battle, “with mutilation and death visible at our very feet, and with peril to ourselves increasing, rather large drafts were made on our moral forces.” Yet, they continued on fighting until they exhausted all ammunition and were forced back. Realizing the fire slackened, the rebels pushed on. By the end of the battle, the Confederates killed 9, wounded 49 and captured 11 prisoners from the 126th Regiment. McCauley was captured and sent to Libby Prison in Richmond, Va.
Over the course of the Civil War, an estimated 40,000 to 50,000 officer’s passed through Libby Prison. The tobacco warehouse turned prison was home to over 1,200 Union officers at one time. Inmates of this overcrowded prison slept in groups on cold, hard floors lined up on their sides to conserve heat and space. “The poor conditions earned Libby a reputation among the Confederate prisons, not exceeding the infamous Andersonville in Georgia.” Luckily, two weeks after imprisonment, McCauley became part of a prisoner exchange program. On May 20th 1863, he rejoined with his company the same day it mustered out.  McCauley’s experience in the army initiated a slow change in his religious views. In the army he met people of different creeds, making him aware of religious differences and he began to question his own faith. He realized he had lived a sheltered childhood with predetermined beliefs. The army struck an interest in him to examine his own faith and the faith of other religions.
McCauley finished up his term at Princeton in 1864 and returned to the army to work with the United States Christian Commission (USCC). With the beginnings of the Civil War and the need for civilian aid groups, the USCC developed to “promote the spiritual and temporal welfare of the soldiers of the army…” McCauley helped take care of the wounded and distributed Bibles. He remained with the USCC until the end of the Civil War when he enrolled at Western Theological Seminary in Allegheny, Pa in 1864 to continue his study of ministry. Shortly after enrollment he moved with his family to Chicago and entered the Presbyterian Theological Seminary of the Northwest, later known as McCormick. There, he earned his license to became a minister at the Old School Presbytery. Old Schoolers followed a stricter interpretation of the Westminster Confession and placed greater authority on church courts as compared to the New School. In 1867, he married Annie Cleveland Deane of Bangor, Me. Up until now, McCauley had continued to follow the beliefs of his ancestral creed of Calvinism, but he began to have a “mental unrest” over topics like Divine Decrees and Vicarious Atonement. A full mental change finally came after studying the theology of Rev. Dr. Bushnell. McCauley credits his religious change to the reading of Paul’s Epistle to the Romans in his autobiographical Memories.
Realizing his more liberal views of religious faith, he left the Old School Presbytery of Chicago to become a Liberal Congregationalist at Morrison, Illinois. However, his views of Christian doctrine on sin and salvation forced him to withdraw from his Presbyterian license and the Church Council of Morrison refused to proceed with his ordination. An invitation to the First Congregational Unitarian Society in Detroit in 1868 allowed him to take the role as a Christian minister. The Unitarian belief of seeking truth and unity through the guidance of science and philosophy, fit well with McCauley’s new religious interests. McCauley served with several First Unitarian Congregational Churches in Rochester, New York and Waltham, Mass.
After resigning in 1873, he traveled to Germany where he studied philosophy and theology at Heidelberg and Leipzig. Under the influence of Karl Friedrich Christian Krause, he examined the origins and history of Christianity. Krause’s philosophy, focusing on Pantheism, identifies God with the universe and nature. The Philosophical Ideal of Krause provided a broader horizon of thought, thus allowing a more liberal and open view of God and His relationship to man. This type of theology brought up the question of “what is true Christianity”, which McCauley would continue to examine throughout his life and later discussed in his book The Faith of the Incarnation: History and Ideal (1913). Once he finished schooling at Heidelberg and Leipzig in 1875, he returned to America and became pastor of the First Unitarian Church of Washington, DC in 1877 bringing with him the philosophy and theology of Krause.
After the Civil War, the First Unitarian Church of Washington had substantial debts and scattered membership. Within a year of McCauley’s pastorate, he took charge of the reconstruction and organized the funds in order to build a new church. He successfully increased the congregation and raised the necessary money to build an independent church, renamed All Souls Church. He had built a church, free from debt, and maintained sufficient funding. Such work required a desperate need of mental and physical rest, thus in 1880 McCauley decided to leave. Friends of his suggested he recover by traveling and working for the Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE).
During the 1880’s, the BAE under the direction of J. W. Powell put a greater emphasis on Indian linguistics and ethnology. The Bureau strove to compile a synonymy of Indian tribes and languages to better understand and bring about order to the terminological confusion. McCauley was assigned to research the Indians of Minnesota, the Cherokee of North Carolina and the Seminoles of Florida. The last became his most famous report. After spending weeks living with the Seminoles in 1881, he compiled a breakthrough report on Seminole vocabulary, words and phrases. His report on “The Seminole Indians of Florida” was published in the Fifth Annual Report, 1883-1884.  During 1882, McCauley became ill and traveled to Europe and the American Northwest to have fresh mountain air. He settled in Minnesota in 1883 and became pastorate of St. Paul Unitarian Church. While out west he became editor of the Minneapolis Commercial Bulletin, editing columns which discussed reforms, industrial and commercial matters. He formally left the Bureau in 1884 and in 1887, with the death of his wife, he applied for foreign-missionary service with the American Unitarian Association.
American missionary services to China and Japan grew in popularity beginning in 1880 when America became a leader of the transnational religious movement. Japan became a focus of missionary work because of its struggle throughout the centuries of establishing a religious identity. In 1889 McCauley became one of the first Unitarian representatives of Tokyo, Japan. McCauley’s strong belief in saving non-believers attracted him to this position becoming his most notable work. Unitarian missionaries worked to advance their idea of the unity of humankind, which became popular because of the influence of science and philosophy. The popularity of the Unitarian movement abroad took hold with members of the Meirokusha, an intellectual society organized to promote Western learning and establish models of ethical behavior. To promote their rational views, Unitarian missionaries gave lectures, interviews and produced magazines. From 1890 to 1895 McCauley edited the Japanese Unitarian magazine Shukyo, which freely discussed religion, ethics and socials sciences. During that time, he was also a correspondent of the Boston Transcript, writing articles concerning American affairs with Japan and the war with Japan and China. American Unitarian influence grew, and in 1890 they established the First Unitarian Church of Tokyo. The Japanese government and intellectuals readily grasped Unitarian ways because it promoted unity, which many felt would bring progress and a national identity. However, Unitarianism never became the established religion. Japanese leaders solely used Unitarian ideas to encourage the moral and social progress of Japanese civilization.
McCauley’s work overseas continued in 1891 when he became president and professor of the philosophic and historic theology at Senshin Gakuin, College for Advanced Learning in Tokyo. From 1910 to 1916, he was president of the Asiatic Society of Japan. This group of diplomats, businessmen and missionaries regularly met to discuss and learn more about Japan, publishing their information in Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan. His other memberships included vice president of the International Press Association, a Tokyo journalist’s club, from 1915-1916; and president of the American Peace Society of Japan, a Christian peace reform group, from 1916-1919. McCauley’s achievements earned him the Order of the Rising Sun in 1909, the Order of the Sacred Treasure in 1918 and he received the Red Cross Service badge in 1920.
While abroad, he also published many books in both English and Japanese, including Christianity in History (1891), An Introductory Course in Japanese (1896), and Thought and Fact for Today (1911). His most popular work is the translated Japanese classic Hyaku-nin-issiu in 1899, which also provides an explanation to Japanese grammar and pronunciation. His works in English produced unknown scholarly information about Japan, and became part of a new trend of Japan Studies. From his studies abroad, the influence of Krause’s philosophy can be seen in his works Heroic Pioneer for Thought and Life, A Memorial Record (1925) and in Memories and Memorials (1914), an autobiography which also discusses all his life’s achievements. His experiences in the war, missionary work in Japan and philosophy of Krause can also be seen in his 1919 publication of Looking Before and After: Some War Time Essays. After spending thirty years of missionary work in Japan, in 1920 McCauley finally retired and returned to his home in Boston, Mass. For the remaining years of his life he continued to lecture and write at Berkeley California. On November 15, 1925 Rev. Clay McCauley died from abscess of the stomach in California.
Clay McCauley led an eventful and accomplished life. Growing up in a religious environment guided him in becoming a Unitarian clergyman. Yet, he continually question and examined the religious “truths” of Christianity with philosophy, especially that of Krause. Traveling throughout the United States, Germany and Asia provided McCauley with a new religious identity and a broader intellectual mindset. His numerous publications and sermons have established themselves in Unitarian history and with Japanese missionary work.
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3 Responses to “Biography of Clay McCauley”
- Shigeko Mamiya Says: May 26th, 2010 at 12:19 am Dear Ms.Coscette, I have read your article about MacCauley. I am interested in MacCauley’s activities as an Unitarian missionary in Japan. In order to introduce his life I have interpreted this article into Japanese. Would you mind if I introduce my taransration of your article to the general public on the website?
- Credit Card Information Says: July 6th, 2010 at 11:03 am Thanks … I learn a lot upon reading this… Cool….
- nds Says: July 14th, 2010 at 11:45 pm Clay McCauley’s life full of challenges